The vaccine – a world-changing immune tool got its name from a virus in cows.
The word vaccine and vaccination (vaccination) derives from the name of a chickenpox virus. To be more precise, the virus that appeared on cows was called vaccinia. However, the question that many people wonder is why this amazing immune tool, considered “one of the greatest achievements” in all medical history, takes its name from a virus that attacks species cow?
The Oxford English Dictionary notes that the French coined the term “vaccine” in 1800 and vaccination in 1803 although there are some words similar to vaccines in Italian, vacina in Portuguese and vacuna in Spanish. Nha. However, according to an article in the British medical journal, the term was used as an adjective in 1799 by British general practitioner Dr. Edward Jenner. The noun vaccination was later introduced by his friend Richard Dunning in 1800.
When it comes to any aspect of vaccines, Edward Jenner’s work is always being discussed. In the late 18th century, Jenner made a breakthrough by observing cowpox-infected milkingers with pus-like manifestations on their hands and forearms. These people were immune to the smallpox epidemic that frequently attacked residents in the area around him. Each organism will have different types of smallpox virus, such as the variola virus in humans or vaccinia.
There are some stories that Jenner first heard of this phenomenon in the late 1770s from a dairy man. “I’ll never get smallpox because I’ve got smallpox in cows. I’ll never taste the feeling of having an ugly pockmarked face,” the man confidently declared.
In 1796, Jenner made a splash in the history of medicine by injecting patients what nowadays call the world’s first dose of vaccine. Vaccine vaccine is a vaccine made from cowpea virus. At that time, Jenner took pus from cow pea wounds on a milking man’s hand. He then inserted the fluid into a previously made cut on the arm of an 8-year-old boy named James Phipps.
Six weeks later, Jenner exposed the boy to smallpox and Phipps were not infected, even 20 times after that, it did not affect. Phipps later married, had two children and lived long enough to attend Jenner’s funeral in 1823. The first person to be vaccinated died at age 65.
Between 1796-1798, Jenner collected 23 cases of being infected or injected with cowpea virus. In the report “Investigation of the causes and effects of Variolae Vaccinae – a disease that occurs in some western counties of England” that Jenner himself published in 1798, he concluded that “cowpox protects the calf. people recover from the infectious form of smallpox “.
Research is considered a breakthrough in establishing the fields of immunology, vaccine therapy and preventive medicine.
Before Jenner developed her method, many doctors had vaccinated smallpox using a variant method. This is a controlled transfer of pus from an active smallpox lesion in one person to another’s arm and is usually injected under the skin with a needle. The special feature of Jenner’s new method of vaccination with cow pea virus is not only effective but also minimizing side effects and bringing higher safety.
Therefore, Jenner’s method of vaccination quickly became the core of the prevention of smallpox around the world. In 1801, US President Thomas Jefferson declared smallpox vaccination one of the nation’s public health priorities. A few years later, the US President also suggested two explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to vaccinate smallpox in case of the Pacific expedition. Thanks to the World Health Organization’s large-scale vaccination campaign, the disease was wiped off the planet in 1980.
In 1885, almost a century after the technology developed by Jenner, the biologist Louis Pasteur in Paris (France) tested what he called the rabies vaccine. At that time, “vaccine” or “vaccination” is often understood only as the injection of cowpox virus into humans to prevent smallpox. In fact, Pasteur actually makes an anti-rabies antitoxin that can be used as an antidote to someone with rabies. However, he used the word “vaccine” to extend the meaning beyond a Latin word associated with the cowpea virus.
Since then, with his achievements and global influence in his great works, Pasteur has led to the expansion of the vaccine concept from the original. The vaccine has since become the generic name for a series of drugs containing live toxins, attenuated poisons, killed bacteria, or viruses that are often injected into the human body to induce immunity against the drugs. Infectious Diseases.